task. Due to the domain gap between source and target data, inference quality on the target domain can drop drastically especially in terms of absolute scale of depth. In addition, unsupervised adaptation can degrade the model performance due to inaccurate pseudo labels. Furthermore, the model can suffer from catastrophic forgetting when errors are accumulated over time. We propose a test-time domain adaptation framework for monocular depth estimation which achieves both stability and adaptation performance by benefiting from both self-training of the supervised branch and pseudo labels from self-supervised branch, and is able to tackle the above problems: our scale alignment scheme aligns the input features between source and target data, correcting the absolute scale inference on the target domain; with pseudo label consistency check, we select confident pixels thus improve pseudo label quality; regularisation and self-training schemes are applied to help avoid catastrophic forgetting. Without requirement of further supervisions on the target domain, our method adapts the source-trained models to the test data with significant improvements over the direct inference results, providing scalea-ware depth map outputs that outperform the state-of-the-arts.

Figure 1. Overview of our test-time domain adaptation framework. We adapt
our source-trained network to the changing target data during test time in
an online fashion, without requiring the access of the source data anymore.

Fig.2: Pipeline of our adaptation framework. The three branches (from top to bottom) are initialised by source-trained supervised model/ supervised model/ self-supervised model, respectively. For every frame of the test data, the self-supervised branch (bottom) is firstly updated by the unsupervised image synthesis loss which requires only 2 adjacent RGB frames, then be used to create a pseudo label. The regularisation branch (top) generates another pseudo label. The supervised branch (middle) makes a prediction which is then compared with the two pseudo labels, to filter out less confident pixels and create more robust pseudo labels. These pseudo labels are used to update the supervised branch. To increase stability we adopt the EMA [16] self-training scheme for supervised branch. After the iteration, the supervised branch makes an accurate, scale-aware final prediction, and the networks move on to the next frame. Some network details are omitted for simplicity and will be introduced in the texts.

Fig.3: Our Normalization Perturbation (NP) is applied at shallow CNN layers only during training

Table 1: Robust object detection results.


Normalization Perturbation: A Simple Domain Generalization Method for Real-World Domain Shifts

Qi Fan, Mattia Segu, Yu-Wing Tai, Fisher Yu, Chi-Keung Tang, Bernt Schiele, Dengxin Dai

ICLR 2023